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特朗普的可悲之徒

纽约—民主党美国总统提名人希拉里·克林顿最近把支持她的对手唐纳德·特朗普的人称为“一群可悲之徒”。这个用词不得体,也不优雅,随后她因为此番评论而道歉。但她是对的。特朗普吸引了许多支持者,他们的有些观点确实可悲,比如种族观点。

问题在于许多这些可悲选民相对而言教育程度较低,这让克林顿的评价显得有些势利。唉,美国有太多教育程度相对较低的人。

在发达国家中,美国识字率、常识和科学排名很低。日本、韩国、荷兰和俄罗斯的得分比美国高很多。这至少部分是因为教育过于依赖市场:有钱的人受到更好的教育,没有门路的受教育不足。

目前,显然克林顿吸引了教育程度更高的城市选民,而特朗普主要吸引教育程度较低的白人,这些人的祖辈往往是支持民主党的煤矿工人或产业工人。这是否意味着教育(或缺少教育)与危险的煽动家的吸引力之间存在关联?

特朗普身上一个最引人关注的特点是他自身的无知,尽管他受过高等教育,以及他从炫耀自己的无知中获益这一事实。也许大嗓门的无知者更容易让大量对世界的知识与他一样贫乏人们相信自己。

但这不啻认为事实真相在民粹主义搅局者的修辞中至关重要。特朗普的许多支持者对理性观点没有什么兴趣——这是自由主义小人关注的东西。情绪更重要,而在美国和其他国家,煽动家所操纵的主要情绪是恐惧、怨恨和不信任。

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希特勒掌权的德国也是如此。但纳粹党初期的支持者主要不是来自教育程度最低的群体。平均而言,德国的高等教育人口比其他国家更多,并且最狂热的纳粹党中有学校教师、工程师和医生,也有地方小商人、白领工人和农民。

总体而言,相对许多教育程度更高的新教徒,城市工厂工人和保守的天主教徒对希特勒的花言巧语比较不敏感。低教育程度无法解释希特勒的崛起。

恐惧、怨恨和不信任程度在魏玛德国很高,当时一战的失败以及灾难性经济萧条让德国人充满了羞辱感。但纳粹宣传机器煽动的种族偏见与我们今天常见于特朗普支持者的种族偏见不同。犹太人被视为一股邪恶势力,他们主宰了精英职业:银行家、教授、律师、新闻媒体以及娱乐。他们是所谓的背后搞鬼者,让德国无法再次走向伟大。

特朗普的支持者也表现出类似的对精英象征的仇恨,如华尔街银行家、“主流”媒体以及华盛顿局内人。但他们的仇视被导向贫穷的墨西哥移民、黑人或中东难民,他们被视为不速之客,抢走了诚(白)实(人)美国人在社会等级中应有的位次。这是一个在全球化的、文化日益多元的世界中相对弱势群体仇恨比他们还要弱势的群体的问题。

当今美国就像魏玛共和国,仇恨者和恐惧者对主流政治和经济机构毫无信任可言,因此追随承诺最大程度破坏的领导人。他们希望,通过彻底的“打扫房子”可以恢复昔日荣光。在希特勒德国,这一希望存在于所有阶级中间,不管是精英还是草根。在特朗普的美国,这一希望主要在草根中间兴盛。

在美国和欧洲,较为丰裕、教育程度较高的选民认为当今世界并不那么可怕,他们得益于开放边境、廉价移民劳动力、信息技术和文化影响的丰富组合。类似地,追求改善生活的移民和少数民族没有兴趣加入主要针对他们的反动,这也是他们投票支持克林顿的原因。

因此,特朗普必须依靠认为自己被抛弃的不满的美国白人。深有同感的人多到足够支持特朗普这样的根本不合格的总统候选人,这一事实表明美国社会已经病入膏肓。这确实与教育有一定关系——因为教育程度较高这能够对煽动免疫,也因为拙劣的教育体系让太多人成为弱势群体。

在过去,有足够的产业工作岗位留给教育程度较低的选民,让他们过上体面的生活。如今,这些工作岗位正在后工业社会中逐渐消失,太多人觉得自己已经输无可输。在许多国家确实如此,但在美国兹事体大,让一位偏执的煽动家主政不但将让美国饱受伤害,也会让所有试图在日益危险的世界中捍卫自由的国家受伤。

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