Electric car charging Sergei Fadeichev/Getty Images

一个没有排气管的世界

发自圣何塞——人员的有效流动对任何社会都是至关重要的。一个运作良好的交通网络能, 推动经济发展并将人们聚拢起来。但在世界许多地方,从一处移动到另一处就像是在玩命:道路肮脏, 充满危险且极为混乱。卡车、公交车和汽车产生的污染和拥堵每天都在伤害着数百万人,尤其是在新兴国家。

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幸运的是,人类移动的方式正在迎来巨大的变化。自第十九世纪中叶现代内燃机问世以来,它的消亡第一次可能成为现实。各大汽车制造商已经宣布了数十种电动车模块方案,多个欧洲国家的政界人士已经制定了汽油和柴油车的报废期限,而印度中国的领导人也有志于此。

世界各地的企业都在大胆预测电力将塑造未来的交通体系。即使是那些在这场摆脱化石燃料的转换中利益受损最大的人也知道电动车是不可阻挡的潮流。在7月,连壳牌公司的

越来越多的人得出了同样的结论,而我们这些一直倡导将电动车作为气候变化解决方案之一的人们则乐观地认为,一个转折点以在临近。近年来电动车的销售量急剧增加;中国2016年电动车的上牌量约为75万辆。

然而抵制变革是人类的天性,而许多潜在的买主依然犹豫不决。这就是为什么在今后几年中消除消费偏见必定是最优先事项,也需要一些变革来确保电动车的使用和销售量继续增长。

首先,消费者必须克服这样一种观念,认为零排放交通只和发达国家的富人有关。每年有650万人死于空气污染,92% 的世界人口生活在空气不洁净的地方。汽车尾气是空气污染的主要来源。投资于电力交通和基础设施——包括电气化公共交通、充电站和共享电动车计划——对发展有利无害。

支持这类投资需要人们拒绝所谓“清洁”化石燃料的虚假承诺。一些行业官员坚称电动车还没有准备好大规模面世,而更好的解决方案是建造更高效的汽油和柴油发动机。这是我们最常从拉丁美洲的汽车经销商那里听到的说辞,但这种夹带私货的观点是不准确的。

我有幸亲身体验过电动交通以及它相对于汽油和柴油车的优势。我已经驾驶电动车跑了几千英里,横跨了几个国家。我觉得那些体验到了干净、无声和强大技术的驾驶者是很难回归非电动车的。为此各地的政府和消费团体必须共同努力,让更多的人开上这些激动人心的车辆。

最后,我们必须解决运输政策中持续存在的结构性失衡问题。简而言之,那些最受“肮脏”交通影响的人也是政治呼声最弱的人。英国的数据就表明,那些最贫穷的人经常会选择步行或乘坐公共汽车。因此发展零排放公共交通很少能成为政府领导人的优先选项。为了改变这些人的观念,倡导者们必须加强对零排放交通经济和社会效益的宣传,例如对公共卫生的积极影响。

改变这一进程需要时间。在哥斯达黎加,我领导的组织正在努力鼓励企业和政府签署一项 “电力交通协定”以鼓励对电动车基础设施的投资。在2018年初,我们将开设一个网上注册平台,目标是到明年年底得到100家公共和私人机构的签署。同时哥斯达黎加的立法机构也在辩论一项为电力运输提供税收优惠的法案。

其他拉美国家也在寻找促进电力交通的方法。比如在智利,重点是太阳能以及采矿和电动车制造之间的联系。

但仅仅在政治上的改变并不能推动电动车进入快车道。要做到这一点,消费者将需要接受一套新的清洁交通叙事。在哥斯达黎加,几乎所有的电力都是由可再生能源产生的,包括水电、地热和风能,而人们对此感到自豪。这使我们有动力引领全球从汽油/柴油动力汽车转向电动汽车、公交车和火车的进程。我们哥斯达黎加人正在努力向“一个没有排气管的国家”迈进。而最终目的则是将这一目标推广到全球。

可以肯定的是,推动电动引擎越过汽油/柴油动力的阻隔仍然会是场艰巨的战役。但新技术,如更高效的电池和更快速的充电站,将有助于加速这一过渡。正如壳牌的CEO一样,我也相信向电力交通过渡是不可逆的。而我们今天在路上看到的一切,只是一个开始。

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