A visitor uses a tablet dispalyed past the model of a smart city Josep Lago/Getty Images

规划更好的城市

内罗毕和迪拜—美裔加拿大作者简·雅各布斯(Jane Jacobs)曾经观察道城市是国家繁荣和经济增长的引擎。但以现在的形式,现代城市也是不平等和环境破坏的催化剂。如今,城市居民贫困率在不断增加;33%生活在贫民窟;75%的全球二氧化碳排放源自都市区。这类数字应该让我们停下来思考:城市真的是组织人类生活的最佳方法吗?

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它们可以是,但必须经过重大调整,改变它们的规划、建设和管理模式。要想通过城市驱动的增长赋予可持续的繁荣未来能量,政府和开发者必须重新引入以用户为中心的城镇化方针。

如今,大部分城市都没有将重要相关利益方纳入规划过程,导致了排斥性发展(exclusionary development)。以无处不在的城镇边缘住房项目为例,这是许多规划不善的城市的特征。这些建立在前不着村,后不着店地带的多单位住宅看上去十分扎眼,它们常常远离公共交通和其他服务,加剧了居民与城市中心的隔阂。

但这类造成经济和社会影响的设计缺陷只是开始。对我们这些城镇规划专业人士来说,更令人担心的是在很多地方,整个规划过程,亦即我们思考城市、决定它们怎眼使用、由谁使用的方法有缺陷。

即使是初衷最好的规划部门,也不是永远将公众放在第一位。这部分反映了关于谁“拥有”城市的不确定性。居民可以说城市是“他们的”,但政府领导人的所作所为常常表明并非如此。比如,寻求吸引投资的政府,可能会将经济利益置于与居民需求同等的地位,从而降低企业环境标准或税收负担。但这样的决定可能导致去城镇化,让人们远离日益不宜居的城市。

经济自生力和环境责任之间的缺口可能非常大。以生产传统汽油动力汽车为例。尽管这种产业今天可能能够拉动一些城市的增长,但公众对这些汽车所排放的二氧化碳的担忧正在促使消费需求发生改变。能够抓住这一改变的企业更加契合长期增长。

不幸的是,追求利润的实体常常不会将子孙后代视为明天的客户。它们的短视不但影响到自己的利润;也因为用眼前的利益换取生活品质,而影响到了城市。

那么,怎样确保城镇规划能考虑城市实际用户,特别是居民的利益?

大部分城市缺少民主的规划过程,在许多大都市地区,不平等性深深地渗透进了社会肌理 。因此,必须以参与型规划(participatory planning)制度化为起点。通过鼓励透明度和问责来捍卫地方民主的项目至关重要。具备知识和表达自己对影响社区的问题的观点居民能够带来更好的居住社区。考虑他们的观点的规划讨论能带来更好的设计。不论哪里、哪种政治制度的领导人,都需要根据他们所管辖地区的宜居性进行评判,因此,包容性规划过程应该成为每个城市的目标。

有了参与型规划这个起点,政府和居民可以更进一步建设与周边地区和更遥远的区域形成战略性联系的城市。这类增长不但需要靠交通联系,也事关各部门政策和行动协调,包括住房、社会服务和银行等。如此,地区角色和责任能够得到更明确的定义,有限的资源能够得到战略性的、平等的、根据共同日程安排的配置。

但通常的情况是城市以官僚作风来管理资源,这导致了必须合作起来才能让他们所管理的城市明智地进行投资、有效地实施政策的各方,恰恰陷入了日益激烈的竞争。地方自治只有通过强大的地区合作和协调才能实现。

城镇无序蔓延(urban sprawl)很好地说明了为何地区规划方针至关重要。遏制无序蔓延需要协调性的领地战略,以便各城市能够解决共同的问题,如商品运输、住房和服务集群以及产业走廊的管理和部署。市政间合作还可以避免不必要的竞争,实现规模经济。

许多城镇地区正在被设计成“富人的城市”,而不是所有人的人口中心。这正在日益助长社会分隔,威胁居民的安保和安全。“智能城市”和“可持续城镇发展”等规划热词,如果它们背后的理论只能让一小撮人获益,就丝毫没有意义。

如雅各布斯所预测的,在未来几十年中,“城市”间将依然是世界经济增长和繁荣过的引擎。但如果这个引擎要以最有效率的方式运转,那么给予它能量的机器——城镇规划过程本身——也需要调谐。

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