construction site Harm Rhebergen/Flickr

La trappola del buon governo

ROMA – Sviluppo e miglioramento della governance tendono ad andare di pari passo. Contrariamente a quanto si crede, però, c'è scarsa dimostrazione che il successo nell'implementazione di riforme in materia di governance porti a uno sviluppo socio-economico più rapido e inclusivo. In realtà, potrebbe trattarsi dell'esatto contrario.   

L'attenzione per il buon governo nasce dall'intento di ristabilire una crescita sostenuta durante la crisi del debito che colpì i paesi in via di sviluppo negli anni ottanta. Anziché riconsiderare la politica economica prevalente, le istituzioni internazionali scelsero di mirare a bersagli facili, cioè i governi dei paesi in via di sviluppo. Suggerire a questi governi come fare il proprio mestiere divenne la nuova vocazione di tali organizzazioni, che presto svilupparono nuovi approcci "tecnici" alla riforma della governance.  

La Banca mondiale, avvalendosi di oltre cento indicatori, introdusse un indice di governance composito che misura la percezione della capacità di partecipazione e d'influenza dei cittadini sull'operato dei governi, della stabilità politica e dell'assenza di violenza, dell'efficienza del governo, della qualità delle norme vigenti, del tasso di legalità e dei livelli di corruzione. Sostenendo di aver riscontrato una stretta correlazione tra questi indicatori di governance e la performance economica, la Banca riaccese la speranza di aver trovato la chiave per il progresso economico.   

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