construction site Harm Rhebergen/Flickr

Le leurre de la bonne gouvernance

ROME – Le développement économique et une gouvernance améliorée viennent souvent de pair. Pourtant, contrairement à la croyance générale, il y a peu d’indications que le succès de la mise en vigueur des réformes de gouvernance entraîne un développement économique et social accéléré et inclusif. En fait, il est fort probable que ce soit l’inverse.

L’intérêt porté aux pratiques de bonne gouvernance découle des difficultés rencontrées pour relancer la croissance durable lors des crises de la dette des pays en développement au cours des années 1980. Au lieu de revoir l’orientation des politiques économiques, les institutions internationales de développement s’en sont prises à des proies faciles : les gouvernements des pays en développement. Ces institutions se sont donné pour mission de conseiller les instances de ces pays sur leurs façons de faire, qui s’est vite transformée dans de nouvelles approches « techniques » en matière de réforme de la gouvernance.

La Banque mondiale, s’appuyant sur plus de 100 indicateurs, a formulé un indice composé pour jauger le degré de bonne gouvernance, sur la base des perceptions du droit au chapitre des citoyens, de l’imputabilité, de la stabilité politique, de l’absence de violence, de l’efficacité du secteur public, de la qualité du cadre réglementaire, de l’État de droit et du degré de corruption. En avançant avoir décelé une forte corrélation entre ses indices de gouvernance et les résultats économiques, la Banque a entretenu les espoirs que le secret du progrès économique avait enfin été découvert.

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