construction site Harm Rhebergen/Flickr

De valkuilen van goed bestuur

ROME – Ontwikkeling en beter bestuur neigen hand in hand te gaan. Maar in tegenstelling tot wat algemeen gedacht wordt is er maar weinig bewijs dat succes in het implementeren van bestuurshervormingen tot snellere en meer inclusieve economische en sociale ontwikkeling leidt. Het zou in feite zelfs wel eens andersom kunnen zijn.

De focus op goed bestuur komt voort uit de worsteling om de duurzame groei te herstellen gedurende de schuldencrises van ontwikkelingslanden in de jaren tachtig. In plaats de heersende benadering van de economische politiek te herijken richtten internationale ontwikkelingsorganisaties zich op het makkelijkste doelwit: de overheden van ontwikkelingslanden. Het adviseren van deze regeringen hoe hun werk te doen werd een nieuwe roeping voor deze instituties, die al snel nieuwe ‘technische’ benaderingen van bestuurshervormingen ontwikkelden.

De Wereldbank introduceerde met gebruik van meer dan 100 indicatoren een samengestelde index van goed bestuur gebaseerd op waarnemingen van de kracht van de stem van het volk en de mate waarin het de regering aansprakelijk weet te stellen, de politieke stabiliteit en afwezigheid van geweld, de doortastendheid van het bestuur, kwaliteit van regelgeving, de rechtsstaat, en niveaus van corruptie. Door de claim dat ze een sterke correlatie tussen deze bestuursindicatoren en de economische prestaties hadden gevonden, voedde de Bank de hoop dat de sleutel tot economische vooruitgang was gevonden.

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