Flags at Glastonbury Shirlaine Forrest/Getty Images

L’Ordre mondial 2.0

NEW YORK – Depuis la paix de Westphalie qui mit fin, en 1648, à la guerre de Trente ans, le concept de souveraineté – le droit des pays à une existence indépendante et à l’autonomie – a constitué pendant presque quatre siècles le socle de l’ordre international. Et pour une bonne raison : comme nous avons pu le constater siècle après siècle – le nôtre ne fait pas exception –, un monde où la force viole les frontières est un monde d’instabilité et de conflit.

Mais dans un monde globalisé, ce système d’exploitation seulement fondé sur le respect de la souveraineté – appelons-le l’ordre mondial 1.0 – est devenu obsolète. Ce qui était local ne l’est plus aujourd’hui. Tous les lieux, ou peu s’en faut, sont accessibles à tous et à tout, des touristes et des terroristes aux réfugiés, des courriels, des maladies ou des dollars aux gaz à effet de serre. C’est pourquoi ce qui se passe à l’intérieur d’un pays ne peut plus concerner ce seul pays. Les réalités contemporaines plaident pour la mise à jour du système, pour un ordre mondial 2.0, fondé sur les « obligations attachées à la souveraineté », où les États souverains auront, outre leurs droits, des obligations envers les États tiers.

Un nouvel ordre international nécessitera aussi un ensemble élargi de normes et de dispositions, à commencer par des principes admis par tous qui fondent le statut d’État. Les gouvernements existants n’accepteraient de considérer les candidatures au statut d’État qu’à la condition qu’elles soient historiquement justifiées, qu’elles s’appuient sur des raisons incontournables, qu’elles jouissent du soutien de la population et que l’entité proposée soit viable.  

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