Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty Images

Peran Korupsi dalam Memperparah Perubahan Iklim

LONDON, BERLIN – Aktivis anti-korupsi mencapai sejumlah kemenangan penting pada tahun 2016, salah satunya adalah dengan menjamin akuntabilitas dari salah satu perjanjian paling korup yang pernah ada; yaitu perjanjian akuisisi blok minyak lepas pantai OPL 245 di Nigeria oleh Royal Dutch Shell dan Eni, yang merupakan perusahaan terbesar di Italia. Pada bulan Desember tahun lalu, Komisi Kejahatan Perekonomian dan Finansial Nigeria mendakwa beberapa warga negara Nigeria yang terlibat dalam kasus ini, dan jaksa penuntut dari Italia telah menyelesaikan penyelidikan yang mereka lakukan sehingga menciptakan peluang yang lebih besar untuk menyeret para eksekutif dan perusahaan yang bertanggung jawab atas kasus ini ke persidangan.

Beberapa bulan sebelumnya, yaitu pada bulan Juni 2016, Komisi Sekuritas dan Bursa Amerika mengeluarkan peraturan dibawah pasal 1504 undang-undang Dodd-Frank yang mewajibkan perusahaan minyak, gas dan tambang untuk mempublikasikan semua pembayaran kepada pemerintah di setiap proyek yang ada. Jika Komisi Sekuritas dan Bursa mengeluarkan peraturan ini lebih awal, maka besar kemungkinan Shell dan Eni tidak akan melakukan perjanjian OPL 245 karena mereka harus mempublikasikan pembayaran yang mereka lakukan. Namun tentangan dari industri minyak menyebabkan peraturan ini ditangguhkan sehingga perusahaan-perusahaan yang terlibat bisa menyembunyikan pembayaran yang mereka lakukan.

Tahun lalu juga ditandai dengan pertama kalinya dalam jutaan tahun, konsentrasi CO2 mencapai 400 parts per million (ppm) di atmosfir. Walaupun perjanjian perubahan iklim Paris disebut sebagai sebuah kesuksesan besar ketika hal ini rampung dibuat pada bulan Desember 2015, banyak negara yang ikut menandatangani perjanjian ini menunjukkan kurangnya ambisi untuk melaksanakan komitmen mereka untuk menurunkan tingkat emisi karbon. Untuk memahami mengapa hal ini bisa terjadi, maka kita harus memahami betapa pengaruh kepentingan golongan telah merusak sistem pemerintahan kita.

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