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« L’Amérique d’abord », puis le conflit mondial

NEW YORK – L’élection de Donald Trump à la présidence des États-Unis n’est pas seulement le résultat d’une révolte populiste croissante contre la mondialisation, mais semble également annoncer la fin de la Pax Americana – cet ordre international, caractérisé par le libre-échange et la sécurité commune, que l’Amérique et ses alliés ont bâti au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Cet ordre mondial sous conduite américaine a produit 70 années de prospérité. Il repose sur des systèmes de libéralisation du commerce axés sur les marchés, ainsi que sur l’accroissement de la mobilité du capital et la mise en œuvre de politiques sociales judicieuses, le tout appuyé par plusieurs garanties américaines de sécurité en Europe, au Moyen-Orient et en Asie, au travers de l’OTAN et d’autres alliances.

Trump semble néanmoins décidé à appliquer des mesures populistes, protectionnistes et opposées à la mondialisation, vouées à entraver les échanges commerciaux et à limiter la circulation des capitaux et du travail. Le président élu a également semé le doute sur les garanties de sécurité existantes de la part des États-Unis, en laissant entendre qu’il contraindrait les alliés de l’Amérique à payer davantage pour leur propre défense. Si Trump entend véritablement appliquer sa philosophie de « l’Amérique d’abord », cela signifie que son administration orientera la stratégie géopolitique des États-Unis en direction de l’isolationnisme et de l’unilatéralisme, en poursuivant uniquement les intérêts nationaux du pays.

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