Lekoli River in the Congo River basin Education Images/Getty Images

Air sebagai Kekuatan untuk Menciptakan Perdamaian

MUMBAI – Pergantian kepemimpinan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa yang bermarkas di New York, dimana Antonio Guterres akan mengambil alih tampuk kepemimpinan dari Ban Ki-moon sebagai sekretaris jenderal, terjadi di saat gagasan mengenai perdamaian dan konflik mengalami perubahan yang tidak begitu kentara. Perubahan ini khususnya terjadi pada peranan sumber daya – terutama air – yang mulai mendapatkan pengakuan.  

Perubahan semacam ini telah lama dinantikan. Baik Ban Ki-moon dan pendahulunya, Kofi Annan, sejak hampir dua dekade yang lalu telah menyatakan bahwa perlindungan dan pembagian sumber daya alam, terutama air, sangatlah penting bagi perdamaian dan keamanan. Tapi permasalahan ini baru mendapatkan banyak pengakuan pada bulan November tahun lalu, saat Senegal – yang menjabat sebagai Presiden Dewan Keamanan PBB pada bulan tersebut – mengadakan debat resmi yang pertama kali di PBB mengenai air, perdamaian, dan kemanan.  

Debat ini terbuka untuk seluruh negara anggota PBB, dan debat ini berhasil menyatukan pendapat dari 69 perwakilan negara anggota yang meminta agar air diubah dari hal yang mungkin menyebabkan konflik menjadi instrumen untuk mencapai perdamaian dan kerjasama. Beberapa minggu setelahnya, Gutteres menunjuk Amina Mohammed, mantan menteri lingkungan hidup Nigeria sebagai Wakil Sekretaris Jenderal PBB.

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