Война с туберкулезом

БЕРЛИН – Это было хорошее десятилетие в плане борьбы с туберкулезом. Вполне возможно, что мы выполним одну из Целей развития тысячелетия ООН по снижению распространения и смертности от туберкулеза в два раза, по сравнению с 1990 годом, к 2015 году. Как минимум дюжина новых вакцин и возможных лекарств проходят клинические испытания, а Всемирная организация здравоохранения одобрила новый диагностический тест, так называемый GeneXpert.

Прогресс в этой сфере становится все более значимым, учитывая излишнее спокойствие, которое привело к полной остановке исследований и разработок новых методов лечения туберкулеза вплоть до конца двадцатого века. Используемые в настоящее время препараты от туберкулеза были разработаны в 1950-1970 гг. Действительно, бацилле Кальметта-Герена (вакцине БЦЖ) уже почти 100 лет, а наиболее широко используемый диагностический тест ‑ обнаружение под микроскопом микобактерий в мокроте ‑ был разработан 130 лет назад.

Неудивительно, что эффективность этих методов снизилась. Используемая в настоящее время вакцина предотвращает тяжелые случаи туберкулеза у детей, но не наиболее распространенный легочный туберкулез у всех возрастных групп. Микроскопический тест дает ложные результаты практически в половине случаев.

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