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贫困也是社会心理问题

布莱顿—贫穷是非常可耻的经历,它吞噬人的尊严和自我价值感。贫穷的表现和根源各异,但其所带来的耻辱则放之四海而皆准。牛津大学的最新研究发现,从中国到英国,面临经济困境的人,即使他只是儿童,也会经历几乎相同的对骄傲和自尊的打击。

但是,尽管有清楚的证据表明贫困与心理压力有关,但扶贫政策通常并不会考虑到耻辱因素。相反,扶贫措施常常注重无形的形式,如缺少收入或教育。结果,减贫方案常常间接假定只要提高物质财富、改善生活条件,就能自动带来包括精神福利改善在内的无形收益。

对贫困的“社会心理”面——即社会力量和个体态度或行为之间的互动——关注不够起到了误导作用。如果我们想要减少人道痛苦,实现联合国的最重要的可持续发展目标——到2030年消灭“一切形式”的贫困,就必须将解决羞耻在贫困问题上所扮演的内在和积极的角色作为核心。

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