Oil companies and climate change Pacific Press/Getty Images



贯穿20世纪90年代,美国最大的石油和天然气贸易协会及游说集团美国石油学会(API)一而再再而三地根据由保罗·伯恩斯坦(Paul Bernstein)和大卫·蒙哥马利(W. David Montgomery)这两位经济学家所创造的经济模型,提出推行有利于气候的政策将会极其昂贵。美国石油学会利用伯恩斯坦和蒙哥马利的预测声称就业损失和经济成本将超过环境效益,从而成功地延缓了气候变化解决方案的实施。

上述论据在1991年被用来破坏控制二氧化碳理念; 1993年,反对克林顿政府提出的BTU税(即按照热量和碳含量征收的能源附加费);1996年,反对联合国日内瓦会议目标(COP2);1997年,反对联合国京都会议目标(COP3);并在1998年,反对京都议定书的落实。美国石油学会的游说计划不止一次得到了运用,并且也取得了效果。

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