Guy saves marijuana plant from fire in California Josh Edelson/Stringer

Federalisme dan Perlawanan Progresif di Amerika

BERKELEY – 2016 adalah tahun dimana populisme naik daun di Amerika Serikat, Inggris, dan banyak negara maju lainnya. Dengan adanya stagnasi pendapatan, melemahnya peluang ekonomi, dan adanya pendapat bahwa tidak ada kemajuan yang terjadi menyebabkan banyak orang yang merasa tidak puas, dan munculnya kandidat yang memperoleh dukungan karena berjanji untuk mengembalikan kekuasaan kepada “masyarakat” dan mengubah sistem politik yang “dikuasai” oleh para elit demi keuntungan “elit” yang korup. Semakin banyaknya keragaman etnis, ketegangan antar ras, dan perubahan norma sosial, menambah gejolak yang terjadi pada pemilihan umum di Amerika Serikat.     

Di Amerika Serikat, menipisnya kepercayaan kepada pemerintah federal mencapai puncaknya saat Donald Trump memenangi pemilihan umum pada bulan November: walaupun Presiden Barack Obama mendapatkan tingkat persetujuan publik yang tinggi, hanya 19% masyarakat Amerika yang percaya bahwa pemerintah federal akan mengambil kebijakan yang memihak masyarakat. Melihat prioritas partai Republik, yang tercermin dalam pemilihan kabinet Presiden terpilih Trump, program pemerintah federal (dengan pengecualian pada program militer) kemungkinan akan dipangkas. Namun ironisnya, pemotongan anggaran untuk kesehatan, pendidikan, pelatihan dan lingkungan hidup, ditambah dengan penurunan pajak pribadi dan bisnis yang signifikan, akan lebih memperkaya kelompok “elit” dan pada saat yang sama melemahkan program yang memberikan manfaat bagi sebagian besar masyarakat.       

Namun tantangan besar dari segi sosial dan ekonomi yang ditangani oleh program federal ini tidak akan hilang. Tanggung jawab untuk menghadapi tantangan ini akan lebih banyak jatuh ke pemerintah negara bagian dan pemerintah lokal, yang harus menghadapinya dengan cara yang inovatif. Memang betul bahwa jawaban dari Trumpism adalah “federalism progresif”: usaha untuk mencapai tujuan kebijakan progresif dengan menggunakan banyaknya kewenangan yang dilimpahkan kepada pemerintahan subnasional di sistem federal Amerika Serikat.  

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