Пандемия мер жесткой экономии

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – На весенних встречах в этом году Международного валютного фонда и Всемирного банка в Вашингтоне МВФ призвал страны ЕС смягчить их политику жестких мер в экономике и сосредоточиться на инвестициях, что стало отходом от прошлой риторики. Но в коридорах этих двух многосторонних учреждений велись разговоры о двойных стандартах.

В действительности, большинство стран сокращают государственные расходы – при поддержке МВФ. Таким образом, как раз в то время, когда некоторые северные страны начинают ставить под сомнение рецепт мер жесткой экономии, их южные партнеры (в том числе, страны Южной Европы) все чаще принимают меры по структурной налогово-бюджетной перестройке.

По оценкам МВФ, из 119 стран, сокращающих свои бюджеты 2013 года (относительно ВВП), три четверти – это развивающиеся страны (в том числе 21 страна с низким уровнем доходов и 68 стран со средним уровнем доходов). Налогово-бюджетная консолидация затрагивает примерно 80% граждан развивающихся стран, и ее влияние, как ожидается, будет неуклонно расти до конца 2015 года. В течение этого времени величина сокращения будет значительной, и, ожидается, что примерно одна четверть всех развивающихся стран сократит расходы до уровня ниже докризисного.

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