L'austérité,  une politique plus nuisible qu'utile

NEW-YORK – Cette année, lors de leur réunion de printemps à Washington, le FMI et la Banque mondiale ont demandé aux pays européens de relâcher leur politique d'austérité et de donner la priorité aux investissements, une rupture par rapport à leur rhétorique précédente. Mais dans les couloirs de ces deux institutions multilatérales on a parlé d'iniquité.

En réalité, la plupart des pays diminuent les dépenses publiques, une mesure qui a la faveur du FMI. Aussi, bien que certains pays du nord commencent à remettre en question l'austérité, ceux du sud (y compris en Europe) adoptent des mesures d'ajustement budgétaire.

Selon les projections du FMI, le trois quart des 119 pays qui diminuent leur budget 2013 (relativement à leur PIB) sont des pays en développement (parmi eux 21 pays à faible revenu et 68 pays à revenu intermédiaire). Quelques 80% des habitants des pays en développement sont touchés par la consolidation budgétaire, et son impact devrait encore augmenter jusqu'à fin 2015. Durant toute cette période, la contraction budgétaire devrait être marquée, avec des dépenses publiques inférieures à leur niveau d'avant-crise pour le quart des pays en développement.

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