zika NurPhoto/Getty Images

Die Ungerechtigkeiten des Zika-Virus

SOUTHAMPTON – Der Ausbruch von Infektionskrankheiten in Entwicklungsländern ist aus gesundheitlicher Sicht schon schlimm genug. Darüber hinaus sind solche Ausbrüche jedoch mit schwerwiegenden Folgen für die soziale Gerechtigkeit verbunden, weil sie seit Langem bestehende Menschenrechtskrisen verschärfen. Unter anderem, indem die ohnehin schwache Versorgung mit öffentlichen Dienstleistungen untergraben wird und sich bestehende Ungleichheiten vertiefen.

So wie beim Ebola-Ausbruch in Westafrika 2014 waren die verwundbarsten Mitglieder der Gesellschaft – Frauen und Kinder, ethnische Minderheiten und die Armen – besonders schwer vom Zika-Ausbruch in Mittel- und Südamerika 2015 betroffen. Das Zika-Virus wird, so wie Gelbfieber, Dengue und andere Krankheiten, durch die Stechmücke Aedes aegypti übertragen. Aber auch eine sexuelle Übertragung ist möglich, was für eine durch Stechmücken übertragene Krankheit außergewöhnlich ist. Noch außergewöhnlicher ist der Zusammenhang des Zika-Virus mit neurologischen Erkrankungen und Fehlbildungen bei Babys: Mikrozephalie und Guillain-Barré-Syndrom. Sonst nimmt eine Zika-Infektion meist einen eher milden Verlauf.

Unter den über 1,5 Millionen Betroffenen, die sich seit dem Ausbruch mit dem Zika-Virus infiziert haben, waren die Folgen für Frauen im gebärfähigen Alter, vor allem jene, die bereits schwanger waren, somit besonders besorgniserregend. Zwischen 2016 und 2017 wurden insgesamt 11.059 Zika-Fälle bei Schwangeren bestätigt, deren Babys in 10.867 Fällen von Mikrozephalie und anderen angeborenen Fehlbildungen des zentralen Nervensystems betroffen waren. 56 Prozent dieser Babys sind Kinder armer Frauen und farbiger Frauen aus dem Nordosten Brasiliens.

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