反型脂肪的危害

反型脂肪是指在其反型结构中至少有一个双键的不饱和脂肪酸。少量的反型脂肪自然存在于来自奶牛、羊和其他反刍动物的肉类和奶制品之中,而我们所摄入的大部分反型脂肪则来自于使用部分氢化植物油的工业化食品。部分氢化将植物油转化为半固态脂肪,并广泛用于人造黄油、商用烹饪和生产流程之中。该过程将约30%的自然脂肪转化为反型脂肪。在美国,反型脂肪的消费占总能量摄入的2-4%,主要来源是深度油炸的快餐、糕点(包括蛋糕、饼干、松饼、馅饼等)、包装小食品、人造黄油和面包。

反型脂肪摄入所带来的危害不胜枚举。另外,来自部分氢化油的反型脂肪没有任何健康价值。因此,与其它自然的油类和脂肪相比,没有任何理由使用部分氢化油。重要的是,即使少量摄入,其不良后果也是显而易见:如占能量总摄入1-3%,或一个每天消耗2000卡热量的人所摄入的约2-7克(20-60卡)。因此,完全或几近完全避免食用工业反型脂肪(≤0.5%的总能量摄入)可能是避免不良后果并使健康风险最小化所必需的措施。

2004年,丹麦成为第一个立法限制食品中的反型脂肪成分,从而在很大程度上禁止了在所有食品中(包括餐厅食品)使用工业反型脂肪的国家。加拿大正在考虑通过类似的法律,而芝加哥也正考虑禁止餐馆使用反型脂肪。如果餐厅和食品制造商不愿自觉停止使用反型脂肪(就像荷兰的情况那样),那么如下几点就足以确认立法干预降低反型脂肪消费的必要性和重要性:

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