Het mondialiseren van duurzame ontwikkeling

WASHINGTON, DC – De vraag hoe de wereld een einde kan maken aan de extreme armoede en het menselijk welzijn kan verbeteren zal in 2015 opnieuw urgent aan de orde zijn, als de Millennium Development Goals (Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoeleinden, MDGs) verlopen en een nieuwe reeks doelstellingen – de voorgestelde Sustainable Development Goals (Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelstellingen, SDGs) – zal moeten worden opgesteld en ingevoerd.

Het zogenoemde “Synthesis Report” (“Synthese-rapport”) van secretaris-generaal Ban Ki-moon van de Verenigde Naties, waarin wordt uiteengezet wat de belangrijkste onderdelen zijn van de post-2015-agenda, biedt sterke richtlijnen ten aanzien van de vraag hoe duurzame ontwikkeling eruit zou moeten zien en wat de wereldleiders de komende vijftien jaar moeten doen om die te verwezenlijken. Na twee jaar van voorbereidingen met betrekking tot het “wat” van duurzame ontwikkeling, moeten we ons in het komende jaar richten op hoe die tot stand kan worden gebracht.

De centrale ambitie is niet kinderachtig: de uitroeiing van de extreme armoede tegen het jaar 2030. Om dat mogelijk te maken, moeten de SDGs het 20e-eeuwse ontwikkelingsmodel achter zich laten, waarin rijke landen geld gaven aan arme landen, grotendeels om de hongerigen te voeden en de gezondheidszorg en het onderwijs te verbeteren. De MDGs waren op verschillende van deze terreinen opmerkelijk succesvol. Maar het beeld is sindsdien aanzienlijk veranderd. Een nieuwe reeks opkomende economieën – waaronder China, India, Brazilië en Zuid-Afrika – haast zich om zich te moderniseren. De particuliere sector neemt een grotere rol op zich in de economische ontwikkeling. En de achteruitgang van de leefomgeving bedreigt de verworvenheden van de afgelopen decennia.

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