Vladimir Putin Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images

普京政权的阿基利斯之踵

华盛顿——俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京的权威实际比看起来要弱。事实上,普京的权力基石——也就是他在一代人时间里苦苦建立起来的依恃主义的经济模式——已经成为他政治生存的主要威胁。理由非常简单:普京治下裙带资本主义缺乏可靠产权迫使俄罗斯高级官员和寡头将资金存在国外,其中绝大多数存在普京反对的西方政府的管辖地区。

在精心挑选的忠实支持者的帮助下,普京建立了三个权力圈子:国家、国有企业和忠实追随者的“私营”公司。从1998到1999年普京担任联邦安全局主席时上述进程就已经开始,当时秘密警察的控制权牢牢掌握在他的手中。

但从2000到2004年普京首次总统任期才是一个崭露头角的专制政权权力巩固的真正杰作。首先,在2000年夏天,他接管了俄罗斯电视台。而后,他“垂直掌控”了国家行政部门和地区行政机构,并同时实现了对司法体制的“法律独裁”。接下来,在2003年议会选举中,普京实现了对俄罗斯立法机关国家杜马(下议院)和联邦委员会(上议院)的稳固控制。在作为国家权力塔尖的俄罗斯安全委员会,他派驻了谢尔盖·伊万诺夫、帕特鲁舍夫和博尔特尼科夫等三位克格勃将军。

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