Радикальные цели устойчивого развития

БЕРЛИН – Давайте на секунду представим, что мы могли бы изменить мир в соответствии с нашими пожеланиями. Острое экономическое неравенство уступает место социальной и политической интеграции. Всеобщие права человека становятся реальностью. Мы прекращаем уничтожение лесов и пахотных земель. Рыбные запасы восстанавливаются. Два миллиарда человек с нетерпением ждут жизни без нищеты, голода и насилия. Вместо пустых разговоров об изменении климата и нехватке ресурсов мы начнем уважать и поддерживать границы допустимого для нашей планеты и ее атмосферы.

Это было целью в 2001 году, когда ООН приняла Цели развития тысячелетия. И это снова станет целью в следующем году, когда сроки ЦРТ истекут и ООН примет новые основы политики по окружающей среде и развитию. Грядущий набор Целей устойчивого развития (ЦУР) будет стремиться к защите экосистем, сохранению природных ресурсов и, как и ЦРТ, к выводу миллионов людей из нищеты.

Сочетание механизмов защиты окружающей среды и развития является хорошей идеей – такой, которая опирается на успех множества юридических обязательных международных конвенций и соглашений, созданных под эгидой ООН для защиты климата, сохранения биоразнообразия, защиты прав человека и борьбы с нищетой. Хотя они не могут быть идеальными – и, к сожалению, у стран, которые их ратифицировали, не всегда получается достичь поставленных целей – они привели к созданию институциональных процессов, которые поощряют страны к выполнению их обещаний, а граждан – требовать от  правительств подотчетности.

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