A man accused of the attack on a journalist in Russia Mikhail Pochuyev/Getty Images

宣传记者的困境

阿姆斯特丹——平均每隔五天,在世界的某个角落,就会有一名记者因为记者的身份而被杀害。十次里有九次,没有人被起诉,因此造就了死亡或暴力威胁以外的一种逍遥法外的氛围。监禁记者的暴行创下历史记录,媒体人员在履行职务时往往遭到骚扰和威胁。今天,新闻工作是全世界最危险的职业之一。

The Year Ahead 2018

The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

Order now

公开谈论是改变这种状况的一种方法。最近有三个例子突出了记者进行新闻报道的危险,并强调了为什么将这种困境公诸于世是改变现状的唯一方法。

以菲律宾在线新闻网Rappler.com首席执行官玛利亚·路易萨为例。自2012年成立Rappler以来,路易萨的网站已经公开了与杜特尔特总统“禁毒战”法外处决信息有关的大量宝贵资料。由于她的勤奋报道,路易萨仅上个月就收到死亡威胁80多条。 其中不少警告来自匿名博客,其IP地址可以追踪到总统的同僚。

还有威廉·恩特的案例,这位记者报道了不久前反对乌干达总统穆塞韦尼参加下一任总统选举的抗议活动(尽管宪法规定穆塞维尼再次参选为非法)。恩特因为这篇报道而遭到警方的残酷殴打,并被投入监狱监禁了十多天。

最后是缅甸的新闻自由遭到侵蚀。该国媒体法新条款允许公民对某篇文章或新闻报道提起诉讼,即使该报道并未直接提及他们的姓名。这项法律规定与国际法形成鲜明的对照——已经导致2016年2月后昂山素季的全国民主联盟上台以来出现了61起针对记者的诉讼案例。

从土耳其到俄罗斯再到其他国家,侵犯新闻自由已经成为独裁政权的普遍策略。但不光是独裁者和强人正在对媒体宣战。在哥伦比亚和墨西哥,数百名记者正在接受武装警卫的保护,以使他们免遭犯罪集团的侵害。但这并没有阻止大批拉美记者离开记者队伍。墨西哥毒品团伙寻求避免曝光的最常用策略是威胁调查记者的子女。难怪媒体队伍正在不断萎缩。

多数新闻消费者不了解这些报道的部分原因是像我所在机构这样的组织一直试图确保记者本身不成为新闻报道的主角。新闻自由团体运营的默认假设是保护以事实为基础的调查新闻最好的办法就是保障报道者免受暴力的威胁。而且像多数记者一样,我们选择静静地完成工作,而不是抱怨记者行业的危险性从而增加读者的负担。但现在是时候改变策略突出这背后的危险。

比方说,只有在记者回应聘请律师团队并付出大量努力后恩特才被释放,而记者回应是新闻自由无极限组织用来确保记者安全的应急基金。自2011年该基金成立后,已经帮助世界各地数十位记者,包括最近协助一批布隆迪记者逃离民众暴力。而且有大量机构帮助在中东、东欧和其他地方遇难的记者。这些新闻背后的故事必须被公开。

当然,公开这些故事仅仅是一个开始。新闻自由主义者还必须为记者建立更加强大和统一的框架才能保证他们的安全。为实现这一目的,我所在机构正在与其他全球实体进行合作,强化记者安全和逍遥法外问题联合国行动计划。我们还开始定期与其他媒体自由机构召开会议探讨前进的方向。而且,我们开始努力保障立法和执法机构支持媒体保护行动。如果不想让犯罪份子继续逍遥法外,记者需要勇敢的检察官和法官来对袭击者进行惩罚。

但最重要的变革必须来自媒体行业本身。因为记者安全直接影响到新闻机构的员工、自由职业者和读者,这些机构应当报道这一主题。随着对新闻媒体的攻击不断增加,“骄傲地沉默”这样原有的方法已经不再有道理。如果记者利用手中的平台通报世界他们及其同事所面临的危险,那么世界一定会倾听。

一直以来,针对记者的暴力活动从未登上过新闻的头版头条。11月2日,随着世界正式承认结束对记者犯罪逍遥法外国际日,让我们共同努力使这些报道成为头条新闻。

翻译:Xu Binbin

http://prosyn.org/hFs1YKC/zh;

Handpicked to read next

  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now