Congolese refugee in Uganda AFP/Stringer

Hoe arme landen voor de rekening van het vluchtelingenprobleem opdraaien

PARIJS – De Syrische vluchtelingencrisis heeft de aandacht gevestigd op de noodzaak het management van vluchtelingenstromen in tijden van crisis te verbeteren. Eén probleem is vooral zorgwekkend: de arme landen zouden wel eens een grote indirecte prijs kunnen betalen voor de inspanningen van de rijke landen.

Uit cijfers blijkt dat een substantieel deel van de kosten die samenhangen met de instroom van vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in sommige Europese landen wordt verdisconteerd als officiële ontwikkelingshulp (ODA) – de maatstaf die het Development Assistance Committee (DAC) van de OESO gebruikt om de uitgaven aan internationale hulp bij te houden. Hierdoor blijft er minder ontwikkelingshulp over om economische ontwikkelingsprojecten te lanceren, in stand te houden of uit te breiden in de arme landen.

In 2015 hebben de lidstaten van de DAC, die ook lid zijn van de Europese Unie, $9,7 mrd van hun ontwikkelingshulpbudgetten uitgegeven aan ongeveer 1,2 miljoen asielzoekers in hun eigen landen. In vergelijking daarmee gaven ze $3,2 mrd aan ontwikkelingshulp uit in Syrië, Afghanistan, Somalië, Zuid-Soedan en Soedan – de vijf belangrijkste landen waar deze asielzoekers vandaan kwamen.

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