Supporters of the anti-establishment populist 5 Star Movement Tiziana Fabi/AFP/Getty Images

运动政治能让欧洲民主焕然一新吗?

普林斯顿—很多人认为2017年的政治大事件是民粹主义在欧洲的胜利。但他们没有如愿。相反,大事件是颠覆或取代传统政党的自称的“运动”。

比如,法国总统马克龙的“共和国前进”(La République En Marche!)在春季横扫法国总统和议会选举。又比如,时至年末,31岁的库尔兹凭借将保守的奥地利人民党(ÖVP)改造为所谓的“塞巴斯蒂安·库尔兹名单—新人民党”而当选奥地利总理。

放眼欧洲,更多的选民认为传统政党自利而贪权。发展中世界也是如此,历史悠久的老牌政党如南非的非洲国大党(ANC)被广泛认为腐败不堪。在许多例子中,传统政党变成了政治学家所谓的“卡特尔”:它们用国家资源保护权力,不管政策上有什么区别,往往会抱团打压挑战者。

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