Migração em movimento

LONDRES - Em 2000, as Nações Unidas estabeleceram os Objectivos de Desenvolvimento do Milénio (ODM) para impulsionarem o progresso nos objectivos de desenvolvimento importantes, como a redução da pobreza, a promoção da igualdade de género e a limitação das doenças. Mas os artífices dos ODM negligenciaram uma questão crucial: a migração. Felizmente, parece que os líderes mundiais não irão cometer o mesmo erro com a agenda de desenvolvimento pós-2015.

A escala das remessas de dinheiro por si só deveria ser suficiente para convencer o mundo de que a migração merece um lugar de destaque na agenda pós-2015. No ano passado, os migrantes de países em desenvolvimento enviaram um valor estimado de 414 mil milhões de dólares  para as suas famílias - o triplo do total da ajuda oficial ao desenvolvimento. Mais de mil milhões de pessoas dependem desses fundos para ajudar a pagarem a educação, a saúde, a água e o saneamento. Como se isso não bastasse, as remessas têm importantes benefícios macroeconómicos, permitindo aos países pagarem importações essenciais, acederem a mercados de capitais privados e habilitarem-se para menores taxas de juros sobre a dívida soberana.

Mas muitos dos benefícios da migração são desperdiçados. Os intermediários financeiros retiram 9% das remessas, em média, num total estimado de 49 mil milhões de dólares em rendimentos dos migrantes no ano passado. Os recrutadores gananciosos, que ficam muitas vezes com um terço do salário do migrante, cometem fraude noutros mil milhões. Entretanto, o contrabando, o tráfico, a exploração e a discriminação alcançaram consequências humanas negativas incalculáveis.

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