¿Quién acabó con el teléfono Nokia?

HELSINKI – Parece ser una ley de la industria de la tecnología que las compañías más destacadas acaben perdiendo sus posiciones, con frecuencia rápida y brutalmente. La abanderada de los teléfonos portátiles Nokia, uno de los mayores casos de éxito tecnológico de Europa, no ha sido una excepción, al perder su participación en el mercado en el plazo de pocos años. ¿Podrán los nuevos abanderados de esa industria, Apple y Google –por no hablar de los titanes de otros sectores tecnológicos–, evitar la suerte de Nokia?

En 2007, correspondió a Nokia más del 40 por ciento de las ventas de teléfonos portátiles a escala mundial, pero las preferencias de los consumidores estaban ya inclinándose por los teléfonos inteligentes con pantalla táctil. Con la introducción del iPhone de Apple a mediados de aquel año, la participación de Nokia en el mercado se redujo rápidamente y sus ingresos se desplomaron. Al final de 2013, Nokia había vendido su negocio de teléfonos a Microsoft.

Lo que determinó la suerte de Nokia fue una serie de decisiones adoptadas por Stephen Elop en su cargo de consejero delegado, que asumió en octubre de 2010. Cada uno de los días que Elop pasó al timón de Nokia, el valor de mercado de la empresa disminuyó 18 millones de euros (23 millones de dólares), cifras a las que se debió su paso a  la Historia como uno de los peores consejeros delegados.

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