Muslim architecture

Hin zu einem neuen Goldenen Zeitalter des Islam

SCHARDSCHA – Die muslimische Welt hat in der Vergangenheit außergewöhnliche Beträge zu Wissenschaft und Bildung geleistet. Das „Goldene Zeitalter“ des Islam, als Gelehrsamkeit und Lernen in der gesamten muslimischen Welt blühten und gediehen, währte viele Jahrhunderte und beinhaltete unter anderem die Gründung der ersten Universitäten weltweit. Heute freilich hinken die Länder mit muslimischer Bevölkerungsmehrheit der übrigen Welt in Bezug auf Bildung und Forschung deutlich hinterher. Dies muss sich ändern, wenn die Region ihrer schnell wachsenden Bevölkerung moderne Arbeitsplätze und ein besseres Leben bieten und mit der globalen Entwicklung Schritt halten will.

Derzeit findet sich nur eine einzige Universität der muslimischen Welt – die türkische Middle East Technical University – unter den Top-100 eines internationalen Rankings, und nur rund ein Dutzend wird in den Top-400 verschiedener anderer Ranglisten geführt. Zwar gibt es in den Naturwissenschaften und in Mathematik auf Hochschulebene keine international standardisierten Prüfungen, doch die Testergebnisse von Viert-, Acht- und Zehntklässlern in der muslimischen Welt liegen in diesen Fächern laut Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study und dem Program for International Student Assessment unter dem weltweiten Durchschnitt. Und die Kluft im Vergleich zu Schülern und Studenten anderswo vertieft sich.

Zudem fallen die Forschungsergebnisse – gemessen anhand von Veröffentlichungen und Zitierungen in internationalen Fachzeitschriften sowie an Patenten – im Vergleich zur Bevölkerung und zu den finanziellen Möglichkeiten unverhältnismäßig gering aus. Muslimische Länder geben im Schnitt nur rund 0,5% ihres BIP für Forschung und Entwicklung aus, während der weltweite Durchschnittswert bei 1,78% vom BIP liegt und der OECD-Durchschnitt bei über 2%. Die Zahl der Beschäftigten in naturwissenschaftlichen Berufen liegt in der muslimischen Welt ebenfalls deutlich unter dem weltweiten Durchschnitt.

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