疯狂的模式

全世界的精神健康服务都基于这样一个假设:即心神烦躁和混乱是一种和生理疾病一样的状态。在澳大拉西亚,我们从海外引入了这种观点,并积极地压制毛利人和当地土著对人类忧虑的更为完整的理解。尽管无数的研究结果表明在“欠发达”国家中的精神疾患康复率远比在“发达国家”的要高,但我们仍然我行我素。

当今,越来越多的问题正被重新定义为“症”或“病”。它们被认为是由遗传的易患病体质和生物化学失衡引起的。生活经历被归结为仅仅是引爆上述生物定时炸弹的触发因素。

因此,感觉非常悲伤就会成为“抑郁症”。过于担心就是“焦虑症”。非常害羞则被冠以“回避型人格障碍”。喜欢殴打他人就是“间歇性爆发性障碍”。过度的赌博、饮酒、服药或进食也都是疾病。同样的定义方式也适用于厌食、厌睡和性冷淡。我们的《精神疾病治疗和统计手册》有足足886页来纪录这些疾病。非常态的、不合时宜的行为被称作“症状”,而这些疾病的名称标签就是“诊断”。

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