Quran, sacred book of Islam

La voie de l'islam vers la modernité

UPPSALA – Nombre de musulmans sont très critiques à l'égard de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme de l'ONU. Pour eux, ce texte a été créé par les anciennes puissances coloniales qui ont un long passé de violation des droits humains, il constitue une tentative parmi d'autres de quelques pays occidentaux d'imposer leur volonté aux pays musulmans. Les conservateurs et fondamentalistes musulmans vont plus loin en affirmant qu'aucun texte humain ne peut égaler, et encore moins l'emporter, sur la charia - autrement dit la parole de Dieu.

Ce conflit entre les normes de l'ONU en matière de droits humains et une certaine conception de l'islam traduit un conflit entre ce dernier et la modernité – un conflit qui laisse un certain nombre de citoyens de pays musulmans, notamment les femmes et les non-musulmans, en situation de grande vulnérabilité. Heureusement, une nouvelle école de pensée musulmane a adopté une nouvelle approche selon laquelle le Coran (comme tout texte religieux) nécessite une interprétation, et cette interprétation peut évoluer au cours du temps.

En réalité le Coran défend des principes tels que la liberté, l'impartialité et la droiture, ce qui traduit un respect fondamental de la justice et de la dignité humaine. Mais comme le souligne le théologien iranien Mohsen Kadivar, beaucoup d'éléments de la charia sont liés à des structures sociales pré-modernes qui n'accordent pas la même protection aux femmes et aux non-musulmans qu'aux hommes musulmans.

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