Quran, sacred book of Islam

伊斯兰教的现代性之路

乌普萨拉—穆斯林社会的很多人一直对联合国《世界人权宣言》(UDHR)持有异议。这些批评者认为,制定该宣言的殖民列强长期侵犯草根人权,该宣言只是一小撮西方国家将自己的意志凌驾于穆斯林国家之上的又一阴谋。伊斯兰教保守派和原教旨主义者更进一步,认为人一切人类发明都不能与伊斯兰教法——即神相提并论,遑论超越伊斯兰教法。

联合国的世俗人权标准与穆斯林宗教教条之间的这一冲突体现的是伊斯兰教和现代性之间的更加广义的冲突——这一冲突让一些穆斯林国家公民,包括女性和非穆斯林,处于危险境地。幸运的是,一个新崛起的穆斯林思想流派以一种新方式解决这一问题,它强调古兰经与其他宗教经典一样,必须被解释——并且这些解释可以随时间变化。

事实上,古兰经确实捍卫自由、公正、正义等原则,这表明古兰经从根本上尊重正义和人类尊严。如伊朗神学家莫森·卡迪瓦尔(Mohsen Kadivar)所强调,问题在于伊斯兰教法的诸多内容联系的是前现代社会结构,它们否认女性和非穆斯林获得与穆斯林男性一样的保护。

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