Les nouveaux champs de bataille du financement du développement

PRETORIA – La popularité des partenariats public-privé (PPP) pour soutenir le développement des infrastructures dans les pays émergents augmente dans le monde entier. Le G-20 encourage les PPP pour stimuler la croissance mondiale et créer des emplois. Les BRICS (Brésil, Russie, Inde, Chine et Afrique du Sud) les considèrent comme un moyen de construire des infrastructures essentielles rapidement et à moindre coût. L'Organisation des Nations Unies espère que les PPP d'infrastructures fourniront les moyens de réaliser son programme de développement mondial pour l'après-2015. Le nouvel engouement pour les PPP pourrait redéfinir non seulement l'économie du développement, mais aussi l'ensemble des relations entre pays riches et pays pauvres – mais pas nécessairement pour le meilleur.

Le succès actuel des PPP tient à trois composantes essentielles : une explosion du financement des infrastructures (soutenu par les fonds de pension et d'autres grands fonds) ; la création de « pipelines » de projets lucratifs impliquant de gigantesques PPP en vue d’exploiter les matières premières des pays ; et le démantèlement des garanties sociales et environnementales. Chacune de ces composantes doit être soigneusement surveillée avec l’augmentation de l'utilisation des PPP.

La Banque mondiale cherche d’ores et déjà à doubler ses prêts d’ici à une dizaine d'années grâce à une expansion des projets d'infrastructure. Son nouveau Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF) démarchera auprès de fonds de pension et souverains du monde entier pour les convaincre à investir dans les infrastructures en tant que classe d'actifs spécifique.

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