Iran fintech startup Scott Peterson/Getty Images

Menjadikan Keuangan Digital Ramah Lingkungan

BEIJING – Keuangan digital telah menjadi sebuah hal yang revolusioner karena memungkinkan inklusi keuangan dengan biaya yang murah. Hal ini tercapai karena adanya teknologi keuangan baru (fintech), dimana konsumen bisa berbelanja dengan mudah, migran bisa mengirimkan uang hasil kerja keras ke keluarga mereka dengan biaya murah, bisnis skala kecil bisa mendapatkan akses ke kredit dalam hitungan menit melalui pembuatan profil yang didorong oleh Big Data, dan orang yang menabung bisa menentukan nasib investasi mereka sendiri. Namun jika fintech juga ingin memenuhi potensi mereka untuk memberikan manfaat bagi masyarakat dalam skala global, ada satu faktor lain yang mereka harus perhitungkan, yaitu lingkungan hidup. 

Program Lingkungan Hidup Persatuan Bangsa-Bangsa (UNEP) baru-baru ini menerbitkan laporan “ Fintech dan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan: Sebuah Analisa Dampak,” yang membahas bagaimana keuangan digital bisa bermanfaat bagi lingkungan hidup. Seperti yang ditulis dalam laporan tersebut, dengan mengurangi biaya dan meningkatkan efisiensi, fintech telah melakukan mobilisasi terhadap keuangan yang ramah lingkungan, memungkinkan masyarakat miskin untuk mempunyai akses terhadap energi yang ramah lingkungan melalui sistem pembayaran yang inovatif dan memfasilitasi penghematan ramah lingkungan baik bagi kelompok masyarakat kaya maupun miskin.

Sebuah perusahaan start-up, Trine, misalnya memungkinkan orang yang tinggal di pusat kota Stockholm untuk menggunakan tabungan mereka untuk mendanai sistem energi matahari yang di distribusikan di daerah pedesaan yang letaknya ribuan kilometer dari tempat tersebut. M-KOPA dari Kenya memanfaatkan platform pembayaran seluler domestik yang sangat sukses, M-PESA, untuk memberikan akses terhadap energi ramah lingkungan pada komunitas miskin. Eksperimen lainnya menyoroti potensi manfaat blockchain dan cryptocurrencies terhadap lingkungan.

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