Arab student Mohammed Huwais/Stringer via Getty Images

阿拉伯教育的自由差距

巴黎—关于阿拉伯世界的教育的讨论很少关注上学在改变社会和政治习惯方面的作用。这是不幸的,因为平均而言,与世界其他部分的公民相比,受过教育的阿拉伯国家公民的政治和社会束缚要大得多。如果阿拉伯社会要想变得更加开放,经济上更有活力,它们的教育系统就必须接受并推进与这一目标相符的价值。

差距反映在世界价值调查(WVS)中。WVS是一项全球观点调查,可用来比较不同国家的各种价值。最近,WVS调查了12个阿拉伯国家——约旦、埃及、巴勒斯坦、黎巴嫩、伊拉克、摩洛哥、阿尔及利亚、突尼斯、卡塔尔、也门、科威特和利比亚——和47个非阿拉伯国家。结果让我们第一次得以将阿拉伯世界中相当大比例的居民与世界其他地区的公民相比较。

WVS衡量四种颇能揭示问题的政治和社会价值:对民主的支持、对公民参与的准备、对威权的服从,以及对作为性别歧视基础的父权价值的支持。一个典型的国家,随着它日益富裕、教育程度日增、政治日益开放,对民主的支持和对公民参与的准备也会增加,而对威权的副总和对父权价值的支持则会降低。

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