global leaders g20 Dan Kitwood/Getty Images

Quel avenir pour le leadership mondial ?

PRINCETON – Du fait de la remise en question du leadership mondial des USA, le sommet du G20 qui se tient les 7 et 8 juillet à Hambourg pourrait être le plus tendu de toute l'Histoire. Ce type de sommet a débuté bien avant la création du G20 en 1999. Il a été conçu dans les années 1970 pour aligner entre elles les politiques intérieures des principales puissances économiques, réduisant ainsi les incertitudes. Mais ces politiques en génèrent maintenant de nouvelles.

Tandis que la communauté internationale a isolé la Russie lors du sommet du G20 à Brisbane en 2014, en 2017 les USA ont choisi pour eux-mêmes la voie de l'isolement. Après avoir fait une apparition fracassante au sommet du G7 à Taormina en mai dernier, Donald Trump a annoncé que les USA allaient se retirer de l'accord de Paris sur le climat signé en 2015. En réponse, les dirigeants européens du G7, à l'exception remarquée de la Première ministre britannique Theresa May, ont signé une déclaration condamnant la position de Trump.

Après avoir été les principaux architectes de l'ONU et de l'ordre international après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, les USA et le Royaume-Uni semblent faire machine arrière. Depuis l'élection de Trump et le référendum sur le Brexit l'année dernière, ces deux pays s'écartent de l'ouverture au monde et du multilatéralisme - un choix politique incohérent et très contesté. Leurs trajectoires, bien que très erratiques, sont similaires.

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