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Uma Oportunidade para o Egipto e o FMI

LAGUNA BEACH – As autoridades egípcias e os responsáveis do Fundo Monetário Internacional chegaram a um acordo. No próximo mês, se Conselho do FMI concordar, o Egipto receberá um empréstimo no valor de 12 mil milhões de dólares para apoiar a execução de reformas económicas. O principal objectivo do programa de três anos consistirá em concretizar o potencial considerável do Egipto, aumentar o crescimento e a criação de emprego e combater a escassez de divisas. Contudo, o acordo também representa uma oportunidade importante de melhoria das relações entre o Egipto e o FMI — um resultado que traria benefícios de grande alcance para ambas as partes.

A relação do Egipto com o FMI é, desde há muito, atribulada. Particularmente em 1977, quando o Egipto reduziu os subsídios alimentares em troca de financiamento do FMI, irromperam tumultos nas principais cidades do Egipto, que resultaram em cerca de 80 mortos e centenas de feridos. O acordo teve de ficar sem efeito e os subsídios foram reintroduzidos. Desde então, vários acordos foram discutidos, inclusivamente em 2012; mas a maioria destes acordos acabaram por derrapar ou ser abandonados.

Neste contexto, não é de surpreender que muitos egípcios considerem o FMI como uma entidade prepotente, que procura impor a sua vontade sobre os países sem ter em devida conta as condições locais. Alguns chegam mesmo a considerá-lo como um instrumento de domínio ocidental. Esta percepção levou a que os últimos governos egípcios não só se furtassem ao apoio do FMI, mas também atrasassem as consultas económicas anuais exigidas nos termos dos artigos do Acordo do Fundo.

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