Woman standing in forest

REDD+: Doppelspiel in Paris

BERLIN – Es ist inzwischen 30 Jahre her, dass die Welternährungsorganisation ihren Tropen-Forstwirtschafts-Aktionsplan (Tropical Forestry Action Plan) einleitete: die erste globale zwischenstaatliche Initiative, um die Entwaldung aufzuhalten. Seit damals hat sich der Waldverlust unvermindert fortgesetzt, und dass die jüngste internationale Anstrengung zu ihrer Beendigung – eine als REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) bezeichnete Initiative – mehr Erfolg hat, scheint unwahrscheinlich. Statt die Wälder unserer Welt zu schützen, war das augenfälligste Ergebnis dieser beiden Vereinbarungen ironischerweise die Produktion unzähliger teurer Gutachterberichte.

REDD+ wurde im Rahmen des UN-Rahmenübereinkommens über Klimaänderungen ins Leben gerufen, und die Vereinbarung über seine Umsetzung dürfte auf der UN-Klimakonferenz in Paris verabschiedet werden. Doch wenn es den Regierungen ernst damit ist, die Entwaldung zu stoppen, sollten sie REDD+ stattdessen aufgeben und durch einen Mechanismus ersetzen, der die Faktoren bekämpft, die der großflächigen Entwaldung zugrundeliegen.

Die Schwächen von REDD+ zeigen sich deutlich in seiner Herangehensweise an die zu lösenden Probleme. Die große Mehrheit der REDD+-Projekte behandelt Waldbewohner und Kleinbauern als Hauptverantwortliche der Entwaldung. Besonders verliebt scheinen die REDD+-Projektentwickler in Projekte zu sein, die sich auf die Beschränkung traditioneller landwirtschaftlicher Praktiken konzentrieren. Gleichzeitig scheuen sie vor Bemühungen zurück, die die wahren Ursachen der Entwaldung bekämpfen würden: die Ausweitung der industriellen Landwirtschaft, enorme Infrastrukturprojekte, den großangelegten Holzschlag und einen außer Kontrolle geratenen Konsum.

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