Soigner les cancers du sein héréditaires

Dans les pays développés, le cancer du sein affecte une femme sur dix et dans la plupart de ces pays, les chiffres sont en augmentation. Mais, quelle que soit la raison (ou les raisons) pour l’augmentation du nombre de cas, nous savons aussi que 5 à 10 % des cancers du sein sont dus à un défaut héréditaire qui affecte deux gènes : le BRCA1 et le BRCA2.

Les femmes porteuses du gène mutant BRCA1 ou BRCA2 présentent un risque de développement du cancer du sein de 80 %. La mutation de ces gènes mène également à une augmentation du risque d’apparition de tumeurs ovariennes.

Quand on découvrit les gènes BRCA1 et BRCA2 il y a plus de dix ans, l’espoir était grand de voir se développer de nouvelles thérapies ciblées. Malheureusement, aucun nouveau traitement n’a encore vu le jour. De ce fait, de nombreuses femmes possédant un haut niveau de gènes mutants BRCA1 et BRCA2 n’ont d’autre choix tragique que de se faire enlever chirurgicalement leur poitrine et leurs ovaires pour prévenir le cancer.

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