Saudi Arabian child NurPhoto/Getty Images

La mayoría silenciosa árabe debe hablar

ARGEL – Desde que el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo comenzara a trabajar en los Informes sobre Desarrollo Humano Árabe (AHDR) en 2001, la situación en muchos países árabes ha ido de mal en peor. De hecho, hoy la región ni siquiera puede reunirse para publicar un nuevo informe: una desgracia, porque para que algún día se pueda alcanzar la paz y la prosperidad en Oriente Próximo y África del Norte es fundamental encontrar una nueva visión en común para el pueblo árabe, especialmente su juventud.

El primer AHDR, publicado en 2002, identificó tres “déficits de desarrollo” principales que impiden el avance de la región: conocimientos, empoderamiento de la mujer y libertades. El informe, “escrito por árabes para árabes”, influyó de manera importante sobre la narrativa de desarrollo regional y el modo como las elites nacionales abordaron los problemas de sus sociedades.

En los días del primer AHDR, el mundo árabe tenía razones para el optimismo. Israel se retiró de Gaza en 2005 tras haberlo hecho del Líbano en 2000. Nuevos gobernantes árabes (como el rey Abdulá II en Jordania, Mohammed VI en Marruecos y Bashar al-Assad en Siria) llegaban al poder, generando esperanzas de cambio. Arabia Saudita anunciaba sus primeras elecciones municipales en 2003, que celebró en 2005. También ese año hubo elecciones (en su mayoría) democráticas en Egipto e Irak. Y, en términos generales, Argelia pudo apaciguar su prolongado conflicto civil, gracias en parte a los altos precios del petróleo que hubo en este periodo.

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