精神分裂综合症

世界上约有1%人口受到精神分裂症的困扰。患者通常在二十几岁的时候第一次发作,许多人终生不会痊愈。更糟糕的是我们对精神分裂的起因几乎一无所知。

一方面,有证据显示精神分裂具有生物学的基础,因为它在家族内相传,这就表明其有遗传的因素。而且患者的脑组织也有轻微的变异。通过药物治疗,尤其是神经传递素多巴胺,能够减轻症状,但是人们对这种疗效的产生机制还是不得而知,并且不幸的是由此带来的副作用也时有发生。

从另外一方面来说,神经分裂的典型症状深深存在于精神领域。患者通常反映有幻觉(感知错误)和错觉(信心错误)。一个患者可能听到自己的想法被大声地说出,或者听到人们谈论他的窃窃私语。另一个患者也许会相信他或者她的行为正被外部势力所控制,或者这种势力正在将思想强加于他们。神经心理研究人员面临的难题是解释为什么大脑的紊乱会导致这些奇怪的体验。

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