Matthias Oesterle/ Getty Images

الإبداع ومنغصاته

كمبريدج ــ كثيرا ما يُشاد بالإبداع التكنولوجي باعتباره قوة قادرة على التغلب على التحديات التنموية الكبرى، وتزويد النمو الاقتصادي بالوقود الضروري، ودفع المجتمعات إلى الأمام. بيد أن الإبداعات تواجه على نحو متكرر حواجز مرتفعة تحول دون تحويلها إلى تطبيقات عاملة، فتحظر الحكومات التكنولوجيات الجديدة صراحة في بعض الأحيان ــ وحتى تلك التي قد تجلب فوائد بعيدة المدى.

ولنتأمل هنا المطبعة. كانت هذه التكنولوجيا الجديدة، بين اختراعات أخرى، نِعمة لأديان العالم، التي أصبحت فجأة تملك وسيلة فعّالة لإعادة إنتاج ونشر النصوص المقدسة. ومع ذلك، حَرَّمَت الإمبراطورية العثمانية طباعة القرآن لما يقرب من أربعمائة عام. ويُقال إن السلطان سليم الأول أصدر في عام 1515 مرسوما يقضي بأن "الاشتغال بعلم الطباعة عقوبته الموت".

ولكن ما الذي قد يجعل أي إنسان يعارض مثل هذه التكنولوجيا المفيدة؟ كما أزعم في كتابي "الإبداع وأعداؤه: لماذا يقاوم الناس التكنولوجيات الجديدة"، فإن الجواب ليس ببساطة أن الناس يخافون من المجهول. إذا تمتد جذور مقاومة التقدم التكنولوجي عادة إلى الخوف من أن يؤدي الإخلال بالوضع الراهن إلى جلب خسائر في تشغيل العمالة، والدخل، والطاقة، والهوية. وتنتهي الحال بالحكومات غالبا إلى اتخاذ القرار بأن حظر التكنولوجيا الجديدة أسهل من التكيف معها.

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