创新的四个“C”

巴黎—如今,创新被广泛认为是可持续经济增长的前提。不管是具有深刻颠覆性的变化,还是只是产品、服务和商业模式的增量改进,创新的结果都能刺激经济的长期生产率。不但发达经济体需要创新,新兴市场也需要,后者从简单照搬发达经济体最佳实践所获得回报已经越来越低。但是,尽管所有国家都需要创新,但尝试和检验方法并不是所有市场都适用的。

哈佛商学院的克里斯滕森(Clayton Christensen)提出了三种让企业——最终是经济——变得更强大的广义创新形式。企业可以对现有产品施以渐进的变革从而在现有市场细分中获得更强的竞争力;它们可以引入产品,如索尼标志性的Walkman和苹果的iPhone,从而创造新的市场细分;它们也可以开发颠覆性的产品——如电、汽车或互联网搜索引擎——让一整个部门或业务模式落后于时代。

政府面临的挑战是设计鼓励企业和个人参与到更多的这类创新中从而刺激经济增长的方式。在这方面的大量研究受哈佛商学院的波特(Michael Porter)的影响,以“集群研究”为主导,通常聚焦于改善新兴经济体和发达经济体内部地区的生产率。结果,在过去二十年中,决策者的注意力从试图理解所谓的亚洲小龙转向了复制硅谷、波士顿的128路线(Route 128)、台湾的新竹科学工业园、韩国的大田科学城和以色列的硅溪(Silicon Wadi)等成功集群。

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