pakistan electricity Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

Pakistans anhaltende Energiekrise

ISLAMABAD – Seit beinah zehn Jahren fehlt es Pakistan an dem Strom, den es braucht, und Produzenten und Verbraucher sehen sich mit Stromausfällen von bis zu zwölf Stunden täglich konfrontiert. Dieser Krise liegt eine schlechte Aufsicht zugrunde. Doch Behörden wie Geber weigern sich störrisch, das Offensichtliche anzuerkennen, und verfolgen stattdessen teure und letztlich ineffektive Interventionen.

Die Erfahrung Pakistans ist ein Musterbeispiel dafür, wie schwer sich arme Länder häufig tun, Reformen zu formulieren und umzusetzen, und zwar selbst Reformen, die notwendig sind, um der Armut zu entkommen. Und tatsächlich untergräbt Pakistans anhaltende Energiekrise seine wirtschaftliche Entwicklung: Nach Schätzungen des Finanzministeriums haben die Stromausfälle das jährliche Wirtschaftswachstum in den letzten neun Jahren um durchschnittlich zwei Prozentpunkte verringert.

Und das ist noch nicht alles. Während desselben Zeitraums hat die Regierung mehr als 10% vom BIP ausgegeben, um die finanziellen Verluste des Energiesektors aufzufangen. Dies bedeutet, dass bei einer vernünftigen Reform des pakistanischen Energiesektors das Wirtschaftswachstum deutlich (etwa 4% pro Jahr) stärker hätte sein können, was potenziell eine ausreichende Anzahl von Arbeitsplätzen für eine junge und weiter wachsende Bevölkerung geschaffen hätte.

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