Rendre la croissance écologique

Quand les dirigeants du monde entier se sont rencontrés au Sommet du Millénaire il y a quatre ans, ils se sont accordés sur un ensemble d'objectifs visant à réduire de moitié la pauvreté dans le monde pour 2015. Ils se sont aussi donnés des objectifs en matière d'environnement parce qu'ils avaient compris sa place centrale dans la croissance économique à long terme, le développement humain et la stabilité de la planète. Le problème est qu'aujourd'hui, à dix ans de l'année buttoir de 2015, année où certains objectifs devront être atteints, les progrès en matière d'environnement sont alarmants de lenteur. Nous pourrions réaliser tant de choses.

La mise au rebus des substances qui attaquent la couche d'ozone décidée lors du protocole de Montréal, par exemple, montre ce que l'on peut faire quand la communauté internationale travaille de manière coopérative. Grâce à ce protocole, on estime à 20 millions les cas de cancer de la peau et à 130 millions les cas de cataractes qui autant été évités.

Ce genre de succès devrait nous encourager. Mais maintenant nous devons mettre nos actions en accord avec l'étendue du défi à relever. Notre monde n'est pas seulement déséquilibré mais menacé. La déforestation augmente, avec près de 100 millions d'hectares perdus lors des dix dernières années, la plupart parce que les millions de fermiers pauvres d'Afrique et d'Amérique latine sont forcés d'abattre les arbres parce qu'ils ne disposent d'aucun autre accès à la terre ou aux ressources énergétiques.

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