Juncker EU John Thys/Stringer

Сколько Европы сможет вытерпеть Европа?

КЕМБРИДЖ (США) – В марте Евросоюз будет отмечать 60-ю годовщину соглашения о своём основании – Римского договора об учреждении Европейского экономического сообщества. ЕС, конечно, есть чем гордиться. После столетий войн, политических бурь и массовых убийств Европа стала мирной и демократической. ЕС привлёк в свой состав 11 стран бывшего советского блока, успешно руководя их переходным, посткоммунистическим процессом. Наконец, в нынешнюю эпоху растущего неравенства страны ЕС демонстрируют самый низкий в мире разрыв в уровне доходов.

Но всё это достижения прошлого. Сегодня ЕС погружён в глубокий экзистенциальный кризис, его будущее под очень большим вопросом. Симптомов предостаточно – Брексит, кошмарный уровень безработицы среди молодёжи в Греции и Испании, долги и стагнация в Италии, рост популистских движений, волна недовольства иммигрантами и евро. Всё это указывает на необходимость серьёзной перестройки европейских институтов.

В этом контексте представление председателем Еврокомиссии Жан-Клодом Юнкером новой «Белой книги» о будущем Европы стало абсолютно своевременным. Юнкер называет пять возможных путей развития: следовать текущей повестке; сконцентрироваться только на общем рынке; разрешить некоторым странам интегрироваться быстрее, чем другим; максимально сократить повестку дня; амбициозно добиваться более тесной, единообразной интеграции.

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