O enigma da inovação

NOVA IORQUE – Por todo o mundo, há um enorme entusiasmo pelo tipo de inovação tecnológica simbolizada pelo Silicon Valley. Nesta perspectiva, o talento da América representa a sua verdadeira vantagem comparativa, que os outros se esforçam por imitar. Mas há um enigma: é difícil detectar os benefícios desta inovação nas estatísticas do PIB.

Aquilo que acontece actualmente é análogo aos acontecimentos que ocorreram há algumas décadas, no início da era dos computadores pessoais. Em 1987, o economista Robert Solow - premiado com o Prémio Nobel pelo seu trabalho pioneiro dedicado ao crescimento - lamentou que “Pode-se ver a era do computador em todo o lado, excepto nas estatísticas da produtividade”. Há várias explicações possíveis para isto.

Talvez o PIB não capte realmente as melhorias nos padrões de vida que a inovação da era do computador está a gerar. Ou talvez esta inovação seja menos significativa do que aquilo que os seus entusiastas acreditam. Como se vê, há alguma verdade em ambas as perspectivas.

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