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Come porre fine alla fame nel mondo

ISTANBUL/KUALA LUMPUR – Lo scorso settembre, i leader mondiali si sono assunti l’impegno di porre fine alla fame nel mondo entro il 2030, uno degli obiettivi di sviluppo sostenibile dell’Onu (SDG). L’impresa sembra titanica, ma in realtà il pianeta produce già una quantità di cibo sufficiente per sfamare tutti i suoi abitanti. Allora, perché il problema persiste?

Povertà e fame sono strettamente legate tra loro, ed è per questo che gli SDG puntano a sconfiggerle entrambe. Per una persona che vive con 1,90 dollari al giorno, ovvero sulla soglia di povertà fissata dalla Banca mondiale, la spesa alimentare rappresenta circa il 50-70 percento del reddito. La Banca stima che quasi quattro quinti dei poveri del mondo vivono in zone rurali, anche se queste aree ospitano meno della metà della popolazione mondiale. Dunque, la conclusione ovvia è che per sradicare la fame bisogna aumentare i redditi rurali in modo sostenibile.

Non sarà un compito facile. Oggigiorno, la maggior parte dei paesi in via di sviluppo è afflitta da alti livelli di disoccupazione e sottoccupazione, ed essendo sfavorevoli le prospettive economiche attuali, soprattutto a causa dei bassi prezzi delle materie prime, e continuando l’insistenza sull’austerità fiscale quasi dappertutto, la pressione al ribasso sui redditi rurali è destinata ad aumentare.   

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