Hacking per l’umanità

CAMBRIDGE – “La vita”, secondo una celebre frase di Oscar Wilde, “imita l’arte molto più di quanto l’arte non imiti la vita”. Nel caso del film della Sony Pictures The Interview, il mondo si ritrova a confrontarsi con un’altra iterazione: la vita imita l’arte che imita la vita. L’uscita del film ha generato intrighi internazionali, dramma e ombrose lotte di potere geopolitico. Ha persino spinto il presidente americano a fare un discorso solenne in merito – tutto per un semplice caso di attacco hacker.

Gli attacchi hacker nei sistemi informativi non sono nulla di nuovo; vanno di pari passo con lo sviluppo delle telecomunicazioni. Uno dei primi attacchi colpì la dimostrazione della trasmissione radio di Guglielmo Marconi nel 1903, quando trasmise messaggi dalla Cornovaglia a Londra, che si trovava a circa 300 chilometri di distanza. Nevil Maskelyne, sedicente mago e aspirante magnate del wireless, frustrato dai brevetti dall’inventore italiano, riuscì a prendere il controllo del sistema e a trasmettere messaggi osceni al pubblico scandalizzato della Royal Institution.

Sebbene l’hacking sia antico quanto il wireless stesso, molto è cambiato dai tempi di Marconi. Le reti informatiche ora ricoprono il nostro pianeta, raccogliendo e trasferendo ingenti quantità di dati in tempo reale. Consentono molte attività comuni: comunicazioni istantanee, social media, transazioni finanziarie e gestione logistica. Fatto più importante, le informazioni non sono più relegate in un reame virtuale, ma permeano l’ambiente in cui viviamo. Il mondo fisico, biologico e quello digitale hanno iniziato a convergere – dando vita a ciò che gli scienziati chiamano “sistemi cyber-fisici”.

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