Oil companies and climate change Pacific Press/Getty Images

إماطة اللثام عن المُشَككين  في تغير المناخ

ستانفورد - بعد خمسة وعشرين عاما من اعتماد اتفاقية الأمم المتحدة الإطارية بشأن تغير المناخ في 9 أيار / مايو 1992، لم ينفذ العالم بعد معاهدة تتناول الاحتباس الحراري العالمي  بشكل فعال. وبعد انسحاب رئيس الولايات المتحدة  دونالد ترامب من اتفاق المناخ في باريس، حان الوقت للتحقيق بشكل جدي في سبب التأخير.

خلال التسعينيات، اعتمد معهد البترول الأمريكي (API) - أكبر جمعية لتجارة النفط والغاز وجماعة الضغط في الولايات المتحدة - على النماذج الاقتصادية التي أنشأها اثنان من خبراء الاقتصاد، بول برنستين و و. ديفيد مونتجومري، ليبين بأن السياسات الموالية للمناخ ستكون مكلفة بشكل مدمر. وقد عمل المعهد بنجاح على تأخير التدابير لمعالجة حلول تغيير المناخ، وذلك باستخدام توقعات بيرنشتاين ومونتغمري للإعلان بأن الخسائر في الوظائف والتكاليف الاقتصادية سوف يفوق الفوائد البيئية.

وقد استخدمت هذه الحجج في عام 1991، لنسف فكرة ضوابط ثاني أكسيد الكربون؛ في عام 1993، مقابل ضريبة إدارة BTU المقترحة من قبل كلينتون (وهي رسوم إضافية للطاقة من شأنها أن تفرض ضرائب على المصادر استنادا إلى محتوى الحرارة والكربون)؛ وفي عام 1996، ضد أهداف مؤتمر الأمم المتحدة للأطراف في جنيف (COP2)؛ وفي عام 1997، ضد أهداف مؤتمر الأمم المتحدة للأطراف في كيوتو (COP3)؛ وفي عام 1998، ضد تنفيذ بروتوكول كيوتو. كانت خطة ضغط خاصة بمعهد البترول متكررة. وقد كُللت بالنجاح أيضا.

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