Man holding grapes.

Penyediaan Pangan kepada Masyarakat yang Berkekurangan

STANFORD/BERKELEY – Hampir semua orang di komunitas ilmiah setuju bahwa memastikan persediaan pangan yang memadai untuk menghadapi lonjakan pertumbuhan penduduk, diperkirakan meningkat hingga 2,5 miliar pada pertengahan abad, akan memerlukan kerja keras. Memang benar, kita bahkan belum berhasil memberikan makanan yang cukup untuk penduduk dunia yang saat ini mencapai 7,3 miliar: hampir 800 juta orang menderita kelaparan atau kekurangan pangan, sementara dua miliar orang lainnya kekurangan zat gizi mikro. Namun belum ada kesepakatan tentang cara menangani masalah keamanan pangan.

Komunitas ilmiah terbagi atas dua pendekatan utama: “tinker with agricultural details” (TAD) dan “mend societal fundamentals” (MSF). Walaupun mayoritas mendukung pendekatan pertama, pendekatan kedua lebih meyakinkan.

Tentunya pendukung TAD telah mengidentifikasi banyak permasalahan penting dalam produksi pangan dan sistem distribusi saat ini, sehingga pemecahan masalah-masalah tersebut dapat meningkatkan keamanan pangan. Hasil panen dapat ditingkatkan dengan mengembangkan varietas tanaman yang lebih baik. Air, pupuk, dan pestisida harus digunakan secara lebih efisien. Pemeliharaan hujan tropis dan ekosistem alami lainnya akan melestarikan jasa ekosistem penting, khususnya kesuburan tanah, penyerbukan, pengendalian hama, dan ameliorasi iklim. Kecenderungan menuju kenaikan konsumsi daging pun harus diputarbalikkan. Peraturan yang lebih ketat tentang penangkapan ikan dan pencemaran di laut dapat menjaga pasokan protein laut yang penting untuk banyak orang. Limbah dalam produksi dan distribusi pangan harus dikurangi. Masyarakat pun harus dididik untuk memilih makanan lestari dan lebih bergizi.

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