rural road Ian Cumming/ZumaPress

气候变化啊,谁最遭罪?

西雅图—几年前,梅琳达(Melinda)和我拜访了一群印度洪水最频繁地区之一的比哈尔(Bihar)米农。他们都属于赤贫,依靠种的大米养活他们的家庭。每年,当季风雨来临时,河水就会上涨,可能淹没他们的农田,毁掉他们的庄稼。但是,他们愿意把全部身家押在农田不会受淹上。这是一场他们常常会输的豪赌。庄稼被毁,他们就得流落到城市打零工养活家庭。但是,下一年他们会回去——常常比他们离家时更加贫穷——再一次开始耕作。

我们的访问有力地提醒我们,对全球最穷的农民来说,生活是一项高难度动作——没有安全网。他们得不到发达国家农民可以得到的良种、肥料、灌溉系统和其他有益的技术——也没有农作物保险。只要一点点坏运气——一场干旱、一场洪水,或一场疫病——就足以让他们陷入更深的贫困和饥饿。

如今,气候变化给他们的生活有添加了一层新风险。未来几十年中的升温将导致农业大崩坏,特别是在热带地区。庄稼将因为降雨过少或过多而无法生长。病虫害将因为更温暖的气候而大量繁殖,毁坏庄稼。

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